Geomorphological Map Preparation

Geomorphological maps are prepared based on the interpretation of remote sensing imagery and field observations/research. The results of image interpretation are presented in the form of images, through a cartographic process. Map descriptions are written in English or in the country in need.

  • Map Setup
At the stage of compiling a geomorphological map, all elements that are a requirement in making a map must be included and adjusted to the availability of space on the map sheet.
  • Data source
The geomorphological map coordinate reference system refers to the national geodetic reference system. In Indonesia, the geodetic reference system is established by Bakosurtanal / Geospatial Information Agency (BIG), based on applicable regulations.
  • Coordinate reference system
The geomorphological map coordinate reference system refers to the national geodetic reference system established by Bakosurtenal, based on applicable regulations.
  • Map sheet size
The size and area limits of the map sheet are determined based on the coordinates, for a scale of 1:250,000 it is 1.5 x 1 degree, 1:100,000 is 30 x 30 minutes, 1:50,000 is 15 x 15 minutes, while for a scale of 1:25,000 it is 7.5 x 7.5 minutes.
  • Description of geomorphology
Geomorphological elements listed in the geomorphological map include geomorphological units (original formations and landforms), morphology, rock types, geomorphological processes, soil/soil, and land cover.
  • Map Presentation
The map presentation is arranged according to the layout chart according to Figure 11-2. Layout changes can be made during the cartographic process, provided that the geomorphology map includes:
Image Example of geomorphological map layout
1) map title
2) name and number of map sheet
3) issuing agency/head of the agency
4) geomorphological map
5) geomorphological cross-section line (A-B-C)
6) map of the location of the mapping area
7) map sheet index location
8) map scale
9) aerial photography/satellite image coverage
10) Author's name & year of publication
11) glossary of toponymous terms
12) geomorphological cross-section
13) geomorphological unit description
14) symbol
15) data source
16) name of reviewer/editor etc
  • Symbol
Symbols are signs used to express geomorphological information on maps, in the form of letters and numbers, colors, lines, and patterns.
  • Letters and numbers
Letters and numbers are used to indicate geomorphological units. Letters are used to indicate the original formation of the landform unit. Figures are used to indicate the type of landform in each of the original formations.

Example of naming map units:

V1.1 = V

is a form of volcanic origin and number 1 is a type of landform (volcanic cone), while .1 is a detailed landform.
  • Color
Color is used to distinguish the original formation units (Table 1). For each landform, a color gradation symbol is given from old to young according to the basic color of the original formation.
  • Line
Lines are used to expressing geomorphological elements and unit boundaries of geomorphological maps.

Table of Symbols, Letters, and Colors of Geomorphological Main Units


The original formation of the structure S (Structures)
The origin of the volcano V (Volcanics)
Denudation origin formation D (Denudational)
Marine origin M (Marine)
Formation from river/fluvial F (Fluvial)
Wind formation origin A (Aeolian)
The original formation of karst K (Karst)
Formation of glacial origin G (Glacial)
Bright Blue