Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena

A researcher will start his research by finding a problem. This is because the problem in a study can affect the strategies that researchers in finding solutions will apply. However, often the problems studied are related to human life.
Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena

Likewise, with research in geography. Research in geography begins with determining the problem. In geographic research, the problem sought is a problem related to the geosphere phenomenon. After knowing the problem according to the geosphere phenomenon, we determine the method according to the science of the problem. Geosphere Phenomenon

Geosphere Phenomenon

Human life on planet earth has had a threshold. When the threshold has been passed, there will be problems on earth. In geography, these problems are distinguished in the phenomenon of the geosphere. Geosphere phenomena are events or events that occur on earth, both natural and human, which can be seen in everyday life. The events that occur are distinguished according to the layers on earth. Quoting from https://gel.geo.ugm.ac.id/en/why-environmental-geography/, the earth consists of several layers of the lithosphere, pedosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and anthroposphere.

Each layer has its scientific field. As the lithosphere is studied in geology, the pedosphere is studied in geomorphology and pedology, the hydrosphere is studied in hydrology, the biosphere is studied in biology and environmental sciences, and the atmosphere is studied in meteorology, climatology, and astronomy, and the anthroposphere is studied in demography.

  • Lithosphere Phenomenon

Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena

The phenomenon of the lithosphere is a layer on the earth associated with events or events that occur on the surface and inside the earth. For example, the events of the volcanic eruption at Mount Sinabung, the liquefaction earthquake in Palu, the earthquake in Yogyakarta, the tsunami in Banten due to volcanic activity, and the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh due to the subduction activity of the Indo-Australian plate subducting towards the Eurasian Plate. These events are in common, caused by the activity below the earth's surface (lithosphere layer).

  • Pedosphere Phenomenon

Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena
The phenomenon of the pedosphere is a layer on the earth related to the soil, both types, characteristics, and the process of formation. Examples of pedosphere phenomena namely the distribution of soil types in an area, the composition of the soil layers, soil characteristics, to disasters such as landslides, erosion, and sedimentation.
  • Hydrosphere Phenomenon

Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena

A hydrosphere phenomenon is an event that occurs on the surface of the earth related to water, both water found on land and sea. Water on the surface of the earth is always in a continuous cycle. The cycle in which water occurs on earth is called the hydrologic cycle. Events related to the hydrosphere phenomenon include sea waves, tides, groundwater, rainfall intensity, watersheds (DAS), and river water discharge.

  • Biosphere Phenomenon

Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena

Fenomena biosfer merupakan segala peristiwa yang terjadi terhadap flora dan fauna di permukaan bumi. Biosfer juga dapat diartikan sebagai lapisan di bumi yang berkaitan dengan tempat tinggal mahkluk hidup. Sehingga peristiwa yang dikaji terkait kondisi lingkungan yang memungkinkan mahkluk hidup untuk beradaptasi di habitatnya. Peristiwa-peristiwa yang berhubungan dengan fenomena biosfer, yaitu fungsi bioma, cagar biosfer, dan karakteristik serta faktor yang mempengaruhi perbedaan flora dan fauna di dunia.

  • Atmospheric Phenomena

Atmospheric phenomena are events or events that occur on earth related to air or gas. The layer of the atmosphere has an essential role in life on the earth's surface. This phenomenon serves to maintain the stability of life on earth. Events related to atmospheric phenomena, namely the layer of air on earth, weather, cloud formation, global warming, climate division, and climate change.

  • Anthroposphere Phenomena

Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena

Anthroposphere phenomena are events or events that occur on earth related to humans or residents with all their activities. The anthroposophic phenomenon is also one of the problems that can be studied in geography. This is because this phenomenon studies population distribution, human movement (mobility), population composition, and population growth.

Geosphere Phenomena in Geography Research

In research, geography as science looks for problems related to geosphere phenomena. This is because the geosphere phenomenon is closely related to humans, animals, and plant's living things. Geography is also a science that studies the causal relationship between the phenomena on the earth's surface and the people in it. These relationships can be physical or social, and the problems are through spatial, environmental, and regional approaches to benefit programs, processes, and development success (Bintarto; 1980).

So it can be concluded that geographic research is a scientific activity that aims to find, develop, and test the truth of data to find solutions to problems related to geosphere phenomena through spatial, environmental, and regional approaches.

After knowing what the scope of understanding of geographic research is. The next stage for someone a geographer will research is determining the problem to be studied. Problems in research play a role in directing a researcher to conduct his research. So that in determining there are three criteria for determining geographic problems, including:

  1. Stating the relationship between one variable and another variable.
  2. Expressed in an interrogative sentence.
  3. Allows for data availability.

The following are examples of research that has been carried out based on geosphere phenomena.

  • Research related to lithosphere phenomena.

Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena
sumber :https://iptek.its.ac.id/index.php/geosaintek/article/download/2955/2296

Research on lithosphere phenomena will usually relate to branches of geography, such as geology, geophysics, geohydrology, etc. Examples of research related to lithosphere phenomena, namely the potential of geological resources in an area, Topographic, Geophysical, and Geological Mapping in an area, distribution of aquifers and groundwater flow patterns in an area, Subsurface Mapping in an area Using the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Method, Interpretation of Geological Structures in South Aru Waters, Maluku Based on Multi-Channel 2D Seismic Data and so on

  • Research related to pedosphere phenomena.

Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena
sumber :https://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/ilmulingkungan/article/download/25793/pdf

Research on pedosphere phenomena will usually relate to branches of geography, such as geomorphology, pedology/soil science, geodesy, etc. Examples of research related to the pedosphere phenomenon, namely the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model for Predicting Erosion and Sedimentation Rates in a watershed, Mapping the status of soil damage on agricultural land in an area, Studying tobacco productivity and quality based on erodibility index values ​​and soil density, Mapping Prediction of Landslide Vulnerability Distribution in an area Using Fuzzy Logic Approach, and so on.

  • Research related to hydrospheric phenomena.

Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena
sumber : laporan hidrologi dan hidrolika Studi : Penanganan Banjir dan Rob di Kab/Kota Tegal dan Kab Brebes tahun 2019

Research on hydrospheric phenomena will usually relate to branches of geography, such as hydrology, oceanography, marine science, etc. Examples of research related to hydrospheric phenomena, namely analysis of flood-prone areas using geographic information systems, Study of Flood Mapping with Hec-GeoRAS, Study of tidal flood vulnerability mapping, tidal harmonic analysis using the admiralty method at observation stations, distribution of aquifers and groundwater flow patterns in an area. The region, modeling the level of tsunami disaster risk in settlements in an area using geographic information systems, and so on.

  • Research related to biosphere phenomena.

Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena
sumber :https://bbsdlp.litbang.pertanian.go.id/ind/index.php?option=com_phocadownload&view=category&download=22:pedoman-penilaian-kesesuaian-lahan-untuk-komoditas-pertanian-strategis&id=7:petunjuk-teknis&Itemid=451

Research on biosphere phenomena will usually relate to branches of geography, such as biogeography, environmental science, etc. Examples of research related to the biosphere phenomenon namely Evaluation of land suitability for sorghum in an area, Spatial analysis for evaluating land suitability for apple plantations in an area, Spatial analysis for evaluating land suitability for oil palm plantations in an area, Studying the impact of environmental damage due to sand mining activities in an area. An area, Vegetation structure of natural forest areas and degraded forests in National Parks in an area, Spatial analysis of the spread of dengue hemorrhagic fever with Moran and Geary's indices in an area, Mapping of environmental carrying capacity based on ecosystem services providing food and clean water in an area. the region, and so on

  • Research related to atmospheric phenomena.

Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena
sumber : https://rekayasamesin.ub.ac.id/index.php/rm/article/download/311/271

Research on atmospheric phenomena will usually relate to branches of geography, such as astronomy, geophysics, meteorology, climatology, etc. Examples of research related to atmospheric phenomena, namely Mapping of wind energy potential in the waters of an area based on QuikScat and WindSat satellite data, Analysis of mapping wind energy potential that wind turbines can install in an area, Analysis of the level of tornado disaster hazard based on geographic information systems in an area. The region, analysis of the relationship between changes in the earth's surface temperature and the index of the built-up area using Landsat imagery, and so on.

  • Research related to anthroposophic phenomena.

Geography Phenomena and Geography Research based on Geosphere Phenomena
Bawole, Paulus & Wiyatiningsih, W. & Harefa, Anugerah & Rodriguesa, Olinda. (2020). Appreciating the growth of informal utilization of city space for sustainable urban development in Yogyakarta city. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 402. 012013. 10.1088/1755-1315/402/1/012013.

Research on anthroposophic phenomena will usually relate to branches of geography, such as demography, planology, population geography, etc. Examples of research related to atmospheric phenomena, namely the strategy for handling slum areas as an effort to create a healthy housing and settlement environment, seasonal population mobility in an area and its impact on the slum environment, analysis of the level of service coverage of minimarket development in road corridors on consumer behavior in an area, and so on