Geography Related Science

Geography Related Science
According to Bintarto, Geography is a science that studies the earth and everything on it, such as people, flora, fauna, climate, air, and all their interactions. According to the Seminar and Workshop of the Indonesian Geographers Association (SEMILOKA IGI) in 1989, Geography is a science that studies the similarities and differences of geosphere phenomena from an environmental and regional point of view in a spatial context.

The following are some of the sciences related to geography.

  1. Cartography, or mapping, studies the representation of the earth's surface with abstract symbols. Arguably, without much controversy, cartography is the cause of the general study of geography. Most geographers admit that their fascination with geography began when they were fascinated by maps in their childhood. Although other sub-disciplines of geography still rely on maps to display the results of their analysis, mapmaking itself is still too abstract to be considered a separate science.
  2. Phytogeography, which studies plants
  3. Zoogeography, which studies animals
  4. Anthropogeography, which studies humans.
  5. Physical geography is a branch of geography that studies physical phenomena on the earth's surface. The physical phenomena consist of soil, water, and air with all the processes. The field of study in physical geography is a natural phenomenon on the earth's surface, the human environment. Therefore, the existence of this branch of science cannot be separated from humans.
  6. Human Geography, Human geography is a branch of geography whose object of study is human space. The aspects studied in this branch include population and human activities, including economic, political, social, and cultural activities. In studying the human aspect, human geography is divided into the branches of population, economic, political, settlement, and social geography.
  7. Economic Geography is a branch of human geography whose field of study is the spatial structure of economic activity. The study focuses on the spatial aspects of the community's economic structure, including agriculture, industry, trade, transportation, communication, services, and so on. In the analysis, natural environmental factors are considered as supporting factors and inhibiting the structure of the population's economic activity. Economic geography includes agricultural, industrial, trade, transportation, and communication.
  8. Political Geography is a branch of human geography whose field of study is the spatial aspect of government or state which includes regional and international relations, government or state on the earth's surface. In political geography, the geographical environment is used as the basis for the development and relations of the state. The field of political geography study is relatively broad, such as spatial aspects, political aspects, and aspects of regional and international relations.
  9. Settlement geography is a branch of geography whose object of study relates to developing settlements in an area on ​​the earth's surface. The aspects discussed are when an area is inhabited by humans, the form of settlement, and what factors influence the development and settlement patterns.

  10. Regional Geography comprehensively describes human and natural (environmental) aspects. The focus of the study is the interrelation, interaction, and integration between natural and human aspects in a particular space.
  11. Geology studies the rock layers of the earth's crust (or lithosphere) and their historical development. The main branches of this science are mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, paleontology, stratigraphy, and sedimentology.
  12. Geophysics studies the physical properties of the earth, such as the shape of the earth, reactions to forces, and the earth's potential field (magnetic and gravitational fields). Geophysics also investigates the interior of the earth, such as the core, mantle, and crust of the earth and their natural contents.
  13. Geodesy is the science of measuring and mapping the earth's surface and seabed.
  14. Soil Science, studies the outermost layer of the earth's crust involved in soil formation (or pedosphere). The main disciplines include edaphology and pedology.
  15. Glaciology is the study of the icy portions of the earth (or cryosphere).
  16. Atmospheric Science studies the gaseous portion of the earth (or atmosphere) between the earth's surface and the exosphere (~1000 km). The main branches of this field are meteorology, climatology, and aeronomy.
  17. Climatology (Greek: Klima, "region, zone"; and-λογία,-logia) is the study of climate, scientifically defined as average weather conditions over a period of time, and is a branch of atmospheric science. The basic knowledge of climate can be used in short-term weather forecasting using similar techniques such as the El Nio - Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Annual North Mode (NAM), Arctic oscillation ( AO), North Pacific (NP) Index, Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation (IPO). Climate models are used for various purposes, from studying climate dynamics and weather systems to future climate projections.
  18. Atmospheric Chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science that studies the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and other planets. This multidisciplinary field involves environmental chemistry, physics, meteorology, computer modeling, oceanography, geology, volcanology, and other disciplines. His research is increasingly related to other fields of science, such as climatology.
  19. Meteorology studies the Earth's atmosphere, especially for weather forecasting. This word comes from the Greek meteors or upper space (atmosphere) and logos or science that studies and discusses the symptoms of weather changes in the atmosphere.

  20. Paleoclimatology is the science of climate change that has occurred throughout the Earth's history.
  21. Biogeography is a branch of biology that studies biological diversity based on space and time. This branch of science aims to reveal the life of an organism and what influences it.
  22. Paleontology studies the history of life on Earth, including ancient animals and plants that have become fossils.
  23. Palynology studies today's polymorphs and their fossils, including pollen, sepura, dinoflagellates, cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoa, and scolecodonts with particles of organic material and kerogen found in sediments and sedimentary rocks.
  24. Micropaleontology is a branch of paleontology that studies microfossils.
  25. Geomicrobiology is the science that combines geology and microbiology and studies the interactions of microscopic organisms with inorganic environments, such as sedimentary rocks. This field becomes essential when dealing with microorganisms in aquifers and public drinking water supplies.
  26. Hydrology (derived from Greek: Yδρoλoγια, Yδωρ+Λoγos, Hydrologic, "science of water") is the branch of civil engineering that studies the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth, including the hydrological cycle and water resources. People who are experts in the field of hydrology, called hydrologists, work in the fields of Earth and environmental sciences, as well as civil and environmental engineering.
  27. Glaciology (from French glace meaning ice and Greek oγος (logos) meaning science) is the study of the physical and chemical properties of ice and snow (glaciers), their formation, movement, and evolution.
  28. Limnology (from English: limnology, from Greek: Lynne, "lake," and logos, "knowledge") is the equivalent of the biology of inland waters, primarily freshwater. The scope of the study sometimes includes brackish waters (estuaries). Limnology is a comprehensive study of life in inland waters, so it is classified as part of ecology.
  29. Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of rocks) is a part of hydrology that studies the distribution and movement of groundwater in soil and rocks in the Earth's crust (generally in aquifers). The terms geohydrology are often used interchangeably. Some circles distinguish between a hydrogeologist or engineer devoted to geology (geohydrology) and a geologist devoted to hydrology (hydrogeology).

  30. Oceanography, (derived from Greek) oceans meaning sea and or graphos meaning picture or description also called oceanology or marine science) is a branch of earth science that studies all aspects of the oceans and oceans. In simple terms, oceanography can be interpreted as a picture or description of the sea. In another language that is more complete, oceanography can be interpreted as the study and scientific exploration (exploration) of the sea and all its phenomena. The sea itself is part of the hydrosphere. It is known that the earth consists of a solid part called the lithosphere, a liquid part called the hydrosphere and a gas part called the atmosphere. Meanwhile, the part related to the ecological system of all living things that inhabit the planet.
  31. Marine biology or Biological Oceanography the science of plants, animals, and ocean microbes (biota) and their ecological interactions
  32. Chemical Oceanography or Ocean Chemistry, the science of ocean chemistry and its chemical interactions with the atmosphere
  33. Marine geology or Geological Oceanography, the science of the geology of the seafloor, including plate tectonics
  34. Oceanography Physics studies the physical characteristics of the oceans, including temperature-salinity structures, mixing, waves, tides, and currents. Ocean engineering includes designing and constructing oil platforms, ships, harbors, and other structures that enable us to use the oceans wisely.
  35. Earth Economic Geology can be used for economic and/or industrial purposes.
  36. Engineering Geology is the application of geological science in engineering practice to ensure that geological factors affecting the location, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of engineering work have been appropriately identified and taken into account.
  37. Environmental Geology, Managing geological and hydrogeological resources such as fossil fuels, minerals, water (surface and subsurface water), and land use. Define and reduce the likelihood of the effects of natural disasters on humans. Manage the disposal of industrial and household waste and reduce or eliminate the effects of pollution.
  38. Historical Geology uses geological principles to reconstruct and understand the Earth's history. This field focuses on the geological processes that alter the Earth's surface and subsurface and uses stratigraphy, structural geology, and paleontology to explain the sequence of these events. This field also focuses on the evolution of plants and animals over different periods on the geological time scale.
  39. Sedimentology studies the formation of soil layers due to the deposition of soil that undergoes displacement from other places.

  40. Stratigraphy studies the history, composition and relative age, soil layers distribution, and rock layers' interpretation to explain Earth's history. From the results of comparisons or correlations between different layers, further studies on lithology (lithostratigraphy), fossil content (biostratigraphy), and their relative and absolute ages (chronostratigraphy) can be developed. We study stratigraphy to determine the extent of the distribution of rock layers.
  41. Structural Geology studies the three-dimensional distribution of rock bodies, their flat or folded surfaces, and their internal composition.
  42. Geochemistry is a branch of geology that studies the chemical compositions of parts of the Earth, for example, in the lithosphere, where most of the chemical composition is a silicate, and CaCO3 is found in stalactites and stalagmites.
  43. Geomorphology is the scientific study of the Earth's surface and the processes that occur on it. It is associated with eroded landforms of hard rock, but the shape of its construction is shaped by rock debris and sometimes by the behavior of the organisms in which they live. "Surface" should not be taken in a narrow sense; it must also include the most distant part of the Earth's crust. Subsurface features, especially in limestone areas, are significant where cave systems are formed and integral to geomorphology.
  44. Geophysics is a part of earth science that studies the Earth using the rules or principles of physics. It includes meteorology, atmospheric electricity, and ionospheric physics. Geophysical research to determine the conditions below the Earth's surface involves measurements above the Earth's surface of the physical parameters possessed by rocks on the Earth. From these measurements, it can be interpreted how the properties and conditions below the Earth's surface are both vertically and horizontally.
  45. Geochronology is the science of determining the absolute age of rocks, fossils, and sediments, within a certain degree of uncertainty inherent in the methods used. Geologists use various methods of age determination to achieve this.
  46. Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of rocks) is a part of hydrology that studies the distribution and movement of groundwater in soil and rocks in the Earth's crust (generally in aquifers). The terms geohydrology are often used interchangeably. Some circles distinguish between a hydrogeologist or engineer devoted to geology (geohydrology) and a geologist devoted to hydrology (hydrogeology).
  47. Mineralogy is an earth science that focuses on minerals' chemical, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties. This study also covers the processes of mineral formation and alteration.
  48. Crystallography is an experimental science aiming to determine atoms' arrangement in solids. In the past, this term was used for the scientific study of crystals. The word "crystallography" comes from the Greek words crystallon = cold/frozen drop, with the meaning extending to all transparent solids to some degree, and graphein = writing.
  49. Gemology

  50. Petrology is a geology field that focuses on studying rocks and the conditions under which they form. There are three branches of petrology concerned with three types of rock: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Petrology comes from the Greek word petra, which means "stone."
  51. Volcanology studies volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological phenomena. A volcanologist is a person who conducts studies in this field. Volcanism comes from the Latin Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.
  52. Soil Science is the study of soil as a natural resource. In this science, various aspects of soil are studied, such as formation, classification, mapping, physical, chemical, biological characteristics, fertility, and its use and management. Soil is the layer that covers the earth between the lithosphere (rocks that make up the earth's crust) and the atmosphere. Soil is a place to grow plants and support animal and human life.
  53. Edaphology (borrowed from English: edaphology, which forms from two Greek words, edaphos, "soil, footing"; and -λογία, -logia, "symbol," "knowledge"), is the science of soil fertility, is one of the two main branches of soil science that studies the role of soil as a supporter of life, especially plants. Another major branch of soil science is pedology.
  54. Geography pedology studies the location, similarities, and differences (variations) of space on physical and human phenomena on the earth's surface. The word geography comes from the Greek words gêo ("Earth") and graphein ("to write" or "to explain").

Sumber :

· Putra, Tara Anggada. 50 Cabang Ilmu Geografi.